Reviews & Metrics for Software Improvements Coursera Answers
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Reviews & Metrics for Software Improvements Coursera Answers
WEEK 1 QUIZ ANSWERS
Module 1: Assessment (Graded) Answer
An essential part of meeting the goals of software development (the right product, done right, and managed right) involves tracking, reviewing, and evaluating both the product and the process used to create that project in a way that is transparent to everyone on the project. This is also known as _____.
- reviewing a product.
- validating a product.
- verifying a product.
Maria is working on creating a software app for a small business that will help them set up time sheets for their employees. She wants to make sure the project is on the right track. Which of the following are forms of feedback she could use to accomplish this goal? (Choose two answers)
- a user study
- continuing to work until the client says something
- gathering suggestions from clients and team members
- creating an alternative app with the same goal as this one
A development team wants to verify the product they are working on. Which of the following is a way they could obtain verification?
- unit tests
- user studies
- frequent demos
Lucy and her team are finishing a sprint on their software project, and are preparing for their sprint review meeting. Unfortunately, one of the features they had hoped to finish in this sprint does not work. One of Lucy’s team members suggest they create a sample for their client demonstration that is hard coded to work with specific input values, so they can still show what the feature will do when it is finished. What should Lucy do and why?
- Lucy should cancel having the sprint review meeting, because there is not enough to present clients.
- Lucy and her team should create the hard coded sample so clients are in a better position to give feedback.
- Lucy should contact the clients and ask them if they would still like to come to the sprint review meeting in light of the unfinished features.
- Lucy and her team should present their product with only its finished features. This means the feature that was not finished this sprint should not be demonstrated. Only features that meet the definition of done should be demoed.
A meeting that takes place at the end of a sprint, and allows the development team to demonstrate their product and gain feedback from stakeholders is what kind of meeting?
- A Daily Scrum.
- A daily stand-up.
- A sprint retrospective meeting.
- A sprint review meeting.
Cleo is working on a project developing a piece of software to help translators create subtitles for short digital movies. In their last sprint, Cleo and her team finished a feature of their software that time-stamps videos into segments for translation. What are some important events she should expect from the sprint review meeting (Choose three answers)?
- One development team member speaks for the entire team during the meeting.
- The product owner approves of the time-stamp feature and removes it from the product backlog.
- The translation software is demoed so stakeholders can see videos being segmented into time-stamps.
- Stakeholders offer feedback on the time-stamp feature – they believe it would be improved if the time-stamp was larger on the screen.
Young Hae is conducting a user study on a new graphing software she has created. She has asked users to navigate the software as they would like, while she observes them in a computer lab. Young Hae is only gathering observational notes on how enjoyable users find the product, and no data of numerical value. This type of user study uses primarily ______ measures, and assess the usability element of _______.
- objective, efficiency
- subjective, effectiveness
- objective, satisfaction
- subjective, satisfaction
Many companies have developed their own methods for producing the right product. The company that expanded on the four stages of understand, explore, prototype and evaluate to include sponsor users, hill statements, and playbacks is _____.
WEEK 2 QUIZ ANSWERS
Module 2: Assessment (Graded) Answer
List the types of software peer reviews in order from the least formal types of reviews to most formal types of reviews:
- software inspections, software technical review, and software walkthroughs
- software walkthrough, software inspections, and software technical reviews
- software walkthroughs, software technical review, and software inspections
- software inspections, software walkthroughs, and software technical reviews
The peer review techniques that involve assessing requirements based on the criteria of: ambiguity, consistency, and completeness are (Choose two that apply):
- software walkthrough
- eliciting requirements
- requirements inspection
- requirements technical review
Some common reasons software projects may avoid using metrics include (select all that apply):
- lack of time
- lack of industry standards
- there are too many metrics to choose from
- lack of knowledge on the use of metrics
The Goal, Question, Metric paradigm helps alleviate the following issues surrounding metrics (Choose two that apply):
- It makes it quicker to use a metric
- It prevents the use of ineffective metrics
- It can be used to make a metric into an industry standard
- It helps ensure that what is being measured is understood and valuable
Gabriela is working on a piece of software that will help a concert venue sell tickets. The clients would like to provide customers with free shipping of tickets if they spent over $250.00. Gabriela will use this number in her code to change shipping to $0.00 – if the number is under $250.00, then the customer has to pay for shipping. The number $250.00 is an example of:
- a goal
- a metric
- a measure
- an indicator
Examples of desirable properties of metrics include (Choose two that apply):
- reduces hours
- simple and computable
- stakeholders approve of it
- consistent in the use of units and dimensions
The popular uptime metric measures in percentages how long a product is “up” and available to users. What requirement does this measure?
- product success
Which of the following are properties of defect analysis? (Choose three that apply)
- defect analysis assesses the quality of a product by analyzing the number of errors in the product
- defect analysis is most useful after a product has been released, and the new defect density can be determined
- defect analysis helps highlight subsystems which may need more focus from the development team, if the subsystem has reached a software barrier
- defect analysis can help determine when a product is ready for release, as it helps determine how many errors developers can expect to find in their code based on previous defect densities
WEEK 3 QUIZ ANSWERS
Module 3: Assessment (Graded) Answer
The daily meeting meant to synchronize the development team and discover any impediments to work is known as the ________.
- Daily Scrum
- Status Meeting
- Morning Stand-Up
- Software Walkthrough
Thomas and his development team finished enough user stories in his last sprint to add up to 12 story points. The sprint before that, Thomas and his team finished 15 story points, which they had expected to finish again. What was the actual velocity of their most recent sprint?
- 12 story points / sprint
- 13 story points / sprint
- 14.5 story points / sprint
- 15 story points / sprint
Previous velocities can be used as an estimate for how much work will be done in the next sprint. What potential factors may influence the outcome of the actual velocity of the sprint (select two that apply)?
- A previous velocity may affect this velocity.
- Actual velocities should always be stable.
- Bugs may occur which affect how long it takes to finish tasks.
- The team may experience a learning curve and accomplish this sprint much more quickly.
Lola takes a look at the release burndown chart her team has created for their project. She knows for a fact that her team has been working hard on a number of tasks. However, she sees that for the past four sprints, the bars on the release burndown chart have stayed the same – no story points have been finished. What is likely happening?
- The team is not working.
- No one has updated the release burndown chart.
- The team should count hours instead of story points.
- Too many new user stories are being started before old ones are completed.
When more tasks are added to a sprint than are completed or removed, this can increase in work hours or story points increasing over time instead of decreasing. This is an example of _____.
- burning up
- burning across
- burning change
- burning down
Sam and her development team are working on a project. They estimate all the user stories of the project add up to 100 story points. In their first sprint, they finish 15 story points, and they mark this change on their release burndown chart. However, the team removed a feature at the beginning of Sprint 2 from the project, resulting in the removal of 5 story points. How could this be represented in an adjustable floor?
- Five story points would be added to the top of the bar representing Sprint 2.
- Five story points would be removed from the top of the bar representing Sprint 2.
- Five story points would be added to the bottom of the bar representing Sprint 2, so the bar starts below the x-axis.
- Five story points would be removed from the bottom of the bar representing Sprint 2, so the bar seems to start above the x-axis.
A burndown chart which marks the days worked on the x-axis, and the total effort on the y-axis and represent a single sprint is known as:
- a line burndown chart
- an iteration burndown chart
- an adjustable floor burndown chart
- a release burndown chart
Clara and her development team are using a whiteboard task board to help them with their iteration burndown. On day twelve, three tasks were moved on the task board to the done column. These tasks were 9 hours, 2 hours, and 12 hours. Another task that took 5 hours was moved into the verify column. How can this information help Clara update the iteration burndown?
- 23 hours can be removed from the start of day twelve.
- 28 hours can be removed from the start of day thirteen.
- 23 hours can be removed from the start of day thirteen.
- It lets Clara know that the user story is not complete yet, and cannot be used towards the iteration burndown chart.
WEEK 4 QUIZ ANSWERS
Module 4: Assessment (Graded) Answer
Marcus and his development team have finished a project for their client, and have decided to reflect on the work that was finished over the project in order to identify improvements and lessons the team learned. This process is formally known as ______ .
- Sprint retrospective
- Project retrospective
Which of the following is not a use for a retrospective?
- Reflecting on what went badly in a project.
- Reflecting on what went well in a project.
- Identifying defects in the code of a product.
- Smoothing over any disagreements amongst team members.
Elements of a safe environment include (select two that apply):
- open communication
- team members who reflect often on their work
- lack of negative responses from peers or management
- time boxed meetings that will not interfere with developer work
Holly works on a team where she feels very supported. Whenever she makes a suggestion for the project, her team members are always enthusiastic. She feels not only that she can contribute, but that she actively wishes to help make the product the best one possible. Holly works in a __________.
- open culture
- safe environment
- dysfunctional team culture
- functional team culture
Chibuzo is leading the project retrospective by helping the development team create a safe environment for discussion, and also to help guide discussion so tough issues are not ignored. In light of this, Chibuzo’s role is _________.
- Scrum master
- outside facilitator
- experienced developer
Project retrospective meetings can take up to three days. Kerth (2001) has compared this to a three course meal, where each course refers to a meal. These courses are, in order:
- readying course, past course, future course
- past course, readying course, future course
- past course, main course, future course
- readying course, main course, future course
Examples of retrospective exercises from Kerth (2001) include (select two that apply):
- “improvements” exercise
- “artifacts contest” exercise
- “emotions seismograph” exercise
- “functional team culture” exercise
A question that an outside facilitator could ask on a pre-work handout for a retrospective exercise could be:
- What did you dislike the most working on this project?
- What emotions do you feel as you think about this meeting?
- What advice would you give to another team working on a similar project?
- Which team member did you enjoy working with the most on this project?
Course Assessment (Graded) Answers
Monitoring is an important part of meeting the goals of software development. This can involve (select three correct answers):
- gathering requirements from clients.
- verifying and validating a product.
- using metrics to measure certain aspects of a project.
- tracking, reviewing, and evaluating the product and process of software development.
Different forms of feedback include (choose three answers):
- Selecting the roles workers will have on a project
- Results from a user study informing how to improve a product
- Gathering criticisms which improve how workers communicate with each other
- Suggestions and criticisms that help a project decide how to move forward among different alternatives
The Agile Manifesto principle, “Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software” highlights the importance of a software product that satisfies stakeholders. This is in line with the concept of:
Francis and his team are coming up on the end of their current sprint. He is preparing to demonstrate the product in the upcoming sprint review meeting, in order to gain stakeholder feedback. What are some important points Francis should remember for the client demonstration? (Choose two answers)
- The product should be demonstrated on the platform it was meant for.
- Clients really appreciate having colourful slides during demonstrations.
- The product demonstrated should be authentic – only features that meet the definition of done should be demonstrated.
- If feedback is particularly lively, it is alright if the sprint review meetings goes over the allotted time provided for the meeting.
Sprint review meetings are an opportunity for the development team to _________, while sprint retrospective meetings allow the development team to _________.
- re-evaluate the project process; demonstrate a product
- demonstrate a product; re-evaluate the project process
- demonstrate a product; gain client feedback on the product
- reflect on other products; re-evaluate the project process
What are the three main events of a sprint review meeting? (Choose three answers)
- Stakeholder feedback
- Outlining the meeting
- Product and feature approval
- Product demonstration
Uwe has developed a user study to test the game he has developed. He has provided his sample users with a set of goals to accomplish in the game, and has recorded how long it takes his users to reach those goals. Why is this data not enough on its own to assess all the qualities of usability?
- This user study actually assesses all the qualities of usability.
- It is a subjective measure of usability that only informs how satisfied users were playing the game.
- Uwe should gather more information over a long period of time, in a longitudinal study, so he has more data to assess usability.
- It is an objective measure of usability that can inform Uwe about the effectiveness and efficiency of his game, but may not tell him much about how satisfied users were playing the game.
Apple is known for using the method _______ to produce the right product, while Google is known for using the method _____ to reach the same goal.
- 10-to-3-to-1, Design Sprint
- 10-to-3-to-1, Design Thinking
- Design Sprint, 10-to-3-to-1
- Design Sprint, Follow-me-home
Software walkthroughs, software technical reviews, and software inspections share the following traits (Choose two that apply):
- They are software peer reviews
- Certain stages of the review are repeated
- They help identify defects in a product early
- They involve a recorder who documents identified issues
Requirements criteria used in both the peer review techniques of requirements inspection, and requirements technical review include (Choose two that apply):
Putri is working with a development team which has chosen to use the metric lines of code or LOC. Putri knows this is an ineffective metric. What reasons could Putri present his manager to illustrate this? (Choose three that apply)
- It takes too much time to count all of the lines of code created by a project.
- Different programming languages can influence the lines of code, even for the same feature.
- The number of lines of code it takes to create a feature is not related to the quality of that feature.
- It may encourage developers to write more lines of code than they would otherwise to seem more productive.
The Goal, Question, Metric paradigm suggests that:
- Metrics do not need planning before their use
- Questions must be used to find the goals of a metric
- Questions can be good indicators of software failure
- The right metric will help answer questions about a clearly defined goal
Carter has been counting the number of defects found in a product every week through bug reports. The defects/week is an example of:
- a measure
- a metric
- an indicator
- a question
Horatio has been keeping track of his development team’s output by measuring the number of story points per sprint. Halfway through the project, the client requests that Horatio start to measure the team’s productivity by using hours per sprint. Horatio explains to his client that this is not a good idea, because it breaks which desirable property of a metric?
- It is not simple.
- It is not objective.
- It is specific to the project.
- It is not consistent as a unit.
The popular metric of _______ is used to measure the non-functional requirement of ______.
- uptime ; reliability
- uptime ; performance
- response time ; reliability
- complexity metrics ; performance
Jill has been working on some software to help her perform colour analysis on photographs. She calculates the defect density of her code pre-release. 400 defects were found in a total of 100,000 lines of code. In the post-release, however, 600 defects were found. Although her total was 10 defects per thousand lines of code, what strategies could Jill use to help lower her high post-release defect numbers? (Choose two that apply)
- It doesn’t matter, because the overall defect density is within industry average.
- Jill could perform more pre-release testing.
- More experienced developers could be brought onto the team, who may be able to catch these problems easier.
- Jill could compare this defect density against that of other subsystems.
Which of the following are properties of the Daily Scrum meeting (select two that apply)?
- They are status meetings.
- They are time-boxed meetings.
- Product owners are required to attend.
- They are a time when impediments to work are highlighted.
The “goal velocity” for a sprint, usually based upon previous similar sprints in the past, is known as the _______.
- actual velocity
- velocity planning
- estimated velocity
- story point measure
Over time, sprint velocities tend to become more and more stable. This is likely because (choose two that apply):
- Development teams have consulted with other workers.
- Development teams learn how to count story points better.
- If the development team is following Agile principles, then a sustainable development pace should develop.
- At the beginning of a project, the development team is still learning to work together, so velocities will change.
Release burndown charts can help a development team visualize (Choose two that apply)
- defects in a product
- the work completed and left to finish
- how many sprints it will take to finish a project
- what metrics to use in a project to monitor progress
The name for two processes that occur when burndowns do not stay on target are _______ and ________.
- burning up and burning down.
- burning across and burning off.
- burning across and burning down.
- burning up and burning across.
Huang and his development team have been using a release burndown chart to keep track of their progress on a project. However, some requirements have changed on the project, leading to a number of tasks being added. Which of the following are the best ways Huang could illustrate these changes in the burndown chart? (Choose two that apply)
- Huang could start a new chart from scratch.
- Huang could add bars above the work remaining bars, demonstrating completed work.
- Huang could just make a note in the current burndown chart of changes that occurred.
- Huang could extend the bars of the burndown chart below the bottom axis, to demonstrate added story points.
An iteration burndown chart differs from a release burndown chart in that it (choose two that apply):
- iteration burndown charts are updated daily
- tracks the completion of user stories and story points
- generally uses working days on the x-axis instead of sprints
- iteration burndown charts tend to be line charts.
Whiteboard task boards help a development team easily visualize (choose two that apply):
- if a release is on schedule
- the stage that tasks of an iteration are at
- if an iteration is experiencing burning across
- the tasks that make up user stories that are to be finished in a sprint
Mariko and her development team have finished a project. At the end of the project, they spent some time reflecting and discussing the project. They identified a number of ways the work done could be done better the next time. These identified ways of improving the project are __________.
- a metric
- lessons learned
- sprint retrospectives
- what went well in the project
Project retrospectives are a good time for the development team to address (select three that apply):
- what went right in a project
- what went wrong in a project
- how to improve the next sprint
- differences or disagreements due to personalities that happened over the project
Techniques that software project managers can use to create safe environments include (select two that apply)
- agreeing with everything team members say
- time-boxing meetings so they do not run too long
- providing feedback to team members through appreciation
- building on an another team member’s original idea, and attributing the original idea back to the person who thought of it
Qualities of a dysfunctional team culture include (select two that apply):
- shared ownership of a project
- emphasis on production instead of improvement
- competitive attitudes that focus on making one individual look good
- an environment where people feel they can contribute, but are not motivated to
Outside facilitators are responsible for (select two that apply):
- representing the needs and goals of clients
- making sure the end of the project “looks good”
- ensuring team members all contribute in discussions
- helping create safe environments for retrospective discussions
Craig has been working on a project that has only recently finished. He was working on creating an interactive timeline, but this was only a specialized and specific part of the project. He looks forward to hearing about what other developers worked on in the course. According to Kerth’s (2001) three day analogy for project retrospectives, which day and course should Craig expect to hear about other developers’ work on the project?
- Day one, during the past course, when rules are set out for the retrospective.
- Day two, during the past course, when the team is going over the lifecycle of the project.
- Day one, during the readying course, when the team goes over highlights of the project to set up context for the rest of the retrospective.
- Craig will have to make time on his own to discuss the work other team members were involved in, as this is not a part of a project retrospective.
Which of the following is not an example of an exercise that would take place in the past course?
- “mine for gold” exercise
- “offer appreciations” exercise
- “create a timeline” exercise
- “artifacts contest” exercise
Trevor is an outside facilitator who has been brought in on a project retrospective to help ensure discussions go well. He sends out a pre-work handout asking team members about their hopes for the retrospective, and concerns they might have. Why are these good questions to ask (select two that apply)?
- these questions are actually not helpful for a retrospective meeting
- these questions only focus on positive aspects of the project and retrospective
- these questions help developers reflect on what they might want to talk about
- gathering answers helps Trevor identify general trends that may need to be discussed